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From the economic point of view solar power looks much more attractively all other alternative energy sources. Really, energy of inflow can be received not everywhere but only on coast of the big reservoirs, but even if to use all potential sources, developed energy all the same would not suffice for maintenance even the current needs(requirements) of mankind. A wind power though also it is possible to extract everywhere, but the output(exit) of the big areas is connected to its(her) introduction from land tenure; besides the size of energy, developed wind power stations, very strongly depends on climatic conditions. However, this lack is to a greater or lesser extent peculiar practically to all alternative power.
Solar radiation is accessible practically in any point of the Earth. Capacity of radiation coming on the Earth makes about 2 MWt/M2 per one year, therefore for solar power the big ground areas are not required - from a surface the area 80-90 ??2 it would be possible to receive as much energy, how many is developed now.
As material for manufacturing solar batteries (SB) the silicon being among firm substances one of the most widespread elements of an earth's crust serves, is more exact - the second after oxygen an element of an earth's crust (29,5 % on weight). One kg of silicon in solar ??????? for 30 years develops electric energy for which manufacture on a thermal power station it is required 75 tons petroleum. Therefore silicon name petroleum of 21-st century.
Last years there is clear rather fast termination(ending) of era of mineral hydrocarbonic raw material (50-100 years), at which raw material in steps, but will be increased steadily in the price. The future of atomic engineering is rather foggy. The available nuclear industry from P.Kapitsa’s easy hand is comparable to " a bomb temporarily giving an electricity ", and thermonuclear synthesis while is in a stage of development and nobody can tell, when reaction of synthesis will learn to use. Manufacture of solar elements in the world today exceeds 1500 ?W annually. If in use of a solar energy commercially still it is a lot of problems in a daily life of many and many millions people ???????????? have come strongly and for ever. Photo-electric stations (PES) are ideal for travel, in variants of mobile use, having PES, you can become energetically independent and enjoy comfort everywhere where there is a sunlight. Thus absolutely silently and harmlessly for an environment, without harmful waste products or emissions. Places of rest equipped with solar elements are free from noise and a smell of diesel engines, which should be included to have an electricity. Photo-electric stations can be applied for a feed(meal) of relay radiocommunications. Photo-electric modules can provide cathodic protection metal ensure the functioning of marks of water navigation, water-elevating installations, household radio equipment, and also carry out a charge.
Photo-electric converters have significant potential advantages:
Completely there are no moving parts, that considerably reduces cost of service;
Service life will reach, probably, 100 years at insignificant decrease(reduction) of characteristics.
Peak capacity of photo-electric stations makes 1200 ?W, and volume of developed energy - 2 *1010 ?W * H.
The world market of a photoelectricity is very dynamical. Rate of growth of a sales volume of
solar elements has made about 30 %. As a rule, PES includes the following elements: the solar battery, the inverter, the store, the monitoring system.
Technical and economic characteristics PES, first of all, efficiency and cost, are defined by the solar battery, materials and technology of their manufacturing. The share of the cost price of the solar battery in cost price PES makes more than 60 %. As the basic structural component of solar battery the solar element serves. Solar elements depending on a material and manufacturing techniques, share on silicon (volumetric, thin-film) and solar element on the basis of connections ?2?2 (CdS/CdTe), ?3?5 etc.
The basic sizes of the silicon plates used now in a batch production of solar elements are given in the following table

 

Wafer
size,
mm
 
Ingot
diameter,mm
thinkness,
µm
Silicon type
Capacity,
W
125?125
150;165;177
180-240
Mono
2.4-2.8
125?125
Full square
180-240
Multi
2.2-2.5
156?156
195;208;220
180-240
Mono
3.6-4.3
156?156
Full square
180-240
Multi
3.4-3.8
210?210
300
180-240
Mono
6.8-8.0
210?210
Full square
180-240
Multi
6.6-7.2
 
 
 
The modern manufacturing techniques of a solar element include a number of technological operations:
1. ?exturized for monosilicon or etching for multisilicon.
2. Gas diffusion and diffusion in conveyor furnaces.
3. Plasma processing of regional parts of a plate.
4. Drawing of clarifying covering.
5. Drawing of current-carrying pastes for creation of contact system.
6. Heat treatment of contact system.
7. Sorting according capacity (efficiency).
8. Packing wafers in special container.
 


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